Privately, Lloyd George opposed revenge and tried to compromise between Clemenceau`s claims and the fourteen points, because Europe must finally reconcile with Germany.  Lloyd George wanted repair conditions that would not cripple the German economy, so that Germany would remain a viable economic power and a viable trading partner.    In arguing that British war pensions and widow`s allowances should be included in the amount of the German reparation, Lloyd George ensured that a significant amount was paid to the British Empire.  On 28 June 1919, European dignitaries crowded the outskirts of Paris, at the Palace of Versailles, to sign one of the most hated treaties in history. Known as the Treaty of Versaille, it formally ended the First World War, while laying the foundations for World War II. Although preceded by a peace conference lasting more than a year, the treaty was rejected by each nation that signed it. In his book A World at Arms, historian Gerhard Weinberg argued that the contract was quite advantageous for Germany. The Bismarck Empire was maintained as a political entity instead of broken, and Germany largely escaped post-war military occupation (unlike the post-World War II situation). In a 1995 essay, Weinberg found that with the demise of Austria-Hungary and Russia`s withdrawal from Europe, the dominant power in Eastern Europe was now.
 The treaty deprived Germany of 25,000 square miles (65,000 km2) of territory and 7 million people. It also forced Germany to renounce the profits made by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and to grant independence to established protectorates.  In Western Europe, Germany was required to recognize Belgian sovereignty over Moresnet and to cede control of the Eupen-Malmedy region. Within six months of the transfer, Belgium had to hold a referendum on whether the citizens of the region should remain under Belgian sovereignty or return to German control, communicate the results to the League of Nations and stick to the League`s decision. [n. 8] To compensate for the destruction of the French coal mines, Germany would have to cede production from the Saarland coal mines to France and control Saarland to the League of Nations for 15 years; A referendum would then be held to decide sovereignty. [n.