He cited the magnitude of the agreements themselves as an example of such changes. Originally, NASA focused on using the document for lunar and later research on Mars. Japan, he said, also wanted to include asteroid and comet missions based on that country`s program of robotic asteroid missions like the Hayabusa asteroid recovery ships2. The document now includes asteroid and comet missions, as well as activities in orbit around the Moon and Mars and Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system. However, the bilateral nature of the agreements is limited. Asked if China could sign, Bridenstine said NASA is limited by bilateral cooperation with China under the so-called “Wolf Amendment” in federal law. “NASA, as an agency, will always abide by the law and the law currently prohibits us from involving China in bilateral activities,” he said. This law could change, “but at this point, it`s just not in the cards.” NASA implements the Artemis agreements as a series of bilateral agreements between the United States and other countries that Bridenstine says allow them to move faster than if NASA were seeking a multilateral agreement under the aegis of the UN. “If we went to an international forum and brought them together all the nations of the world and then started moving forward, it would take a long, long time,” he said. “Our mission is to act quickly while gaining international and business partners.” The seven-page agreements outline a number of principles that the countries participating in the Artemis programme must respect, from interoperability and disclosure of scientific data to the use of space resources and the preservation of space heritage. Many of these principles come directly from the Outer Space Treaty and related treaties.
ISRO announced an 8-week capacity-building program for nanosatellite development called UNNATI (UNispace Nanosatellite Assembly & Training by ISRO) as a UNISPACE+50 initiative (fiftieth anniversary of the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Space). The programme will be implemented for three years at isro`s URR Rao Satellite Centre (URSC) in Bengaluru. In the first batch, 30 participants from 17 countries were successfully trained from January 15 to March 15, 2019. The second batch was carried out from 15 October to 15 December 2019 and included 30 participants from 16 countries. Since the announcement of the Artemis agreements in May, NASA, in collaboration with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has held discussions with these seven countries and others. While NASA has not released the original version of the agreements, the version that has just been released is “significantly improved over the feedback we have received from international partners,” said Mike Gold, nasa`s deputy administrator of international and inter-authority affairs. The joint Indo-French megha-tropics satellite mission was launched in 2011 to study the tropical atmosphere and climate with regard to aspects such as monsoon, cyclones, etc. The data products of this satellite are made available to the international scientific community. Another joint mission with France, called SARAL (satellite for ALTIKA and ARGOS) for space exploration of the ocean by altimetry, was successfully launched on 25 February 2013. CNES provided a radar altimeter instrument called ALTIKA and an on-board relay instrument for the ARGOS international data acquisition system, while ISRO provided the satellite platform, launch and operation of this joint mission. Altimeter data is currently being made available to the global scientific community.
Frans von der Dunk, a professor of space law at the University of Nebraska, drew parallels with the development of international civil aviation rules, which began with bilateral agreements between the United States and Britain, which were later copied between other nations. . . . .